The Buran programme (Бура́н, bʊˈran, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as "the VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" —Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993. In addition to being the designation for the whole Soviet/Russian reusable spacecraft project, Buran was also the name given to Orbiter K1, which completed one unmanned spaceflight in 1988 and was the only Soviet reusable spacecraft to be launched into space. The Buran-class space shuttle orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket as a launch vehicle. They are generally treated as a Soviet equivalent of the United States' Space Shuttle but in the Buran project, only the airplane-shaped orbiter itself was theoretically reusable, and while Orbiter K1 was recovered successfully after its first orbital flight in 1988, it was never reused.
- ↑ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 March 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060320022443/http://www.sciencefirsthand.ru/gunko.pdf. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- ↑ Harvey, Brian (2007). The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After Sputnik, New Frontiers. Springer. p. 8. ISBN 0387713565. https://books.google.com/books?id=kmTz6Phf5WYC&pg=PA8.