Empirical research is research based on evidence derived from direct and indirect observation or experience, and experimentation. If the data can be analyzed, it undergoes quantitative and qualitative research.
- Observation: The observation of a phenomenon and inquiry concerning its causes.
- Induction: The formulation of hypotheses - generalized explanations for the phenomenon.
- Deduction: The formulation of experiments that will test the hypotheses (i.e. confirm them if true, refute them if false).
- Testing: The procedures by which the hypotheses are tested and data are collected.
- Evaluation: The interpretation of the data and the formulation of a theory - an abductive argument that presents the results of the experiment as the most reasonable explanation for the phenomenon.